Disease outbreaks are no longer confined to small geographical areas, but have the potential to impact any region of the world due to an increasingly interconnected population combined with the dynamic nature of disease patterns. This creates a global risk that must be managed through a coordinated approach in order to effectively control any type of epidemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) promulgated International Health Regulations (IHR) to provide an overarching legal framework defining each nation’s duties in handling public health risks that are likely to cross borders. The IHRs constitute a legal agreement among 194 nations. These Regulations define when and how a country must report a disease outbreak to WHO, and highlight specific criteria for categorizing an outbreak as a “public health emergency of international concern,” which then triggers a very specific response. Additionally, the Regulations contain provisions designed to protect the economy of a country that does declare an international emergency. For example, these provisions preclude other nations from enacting travel or trade embargoes without a clear public health justification. Neurologist and Attorney Dr. James C. Johnston is uniquely qualified to deal with the very specialized area of international medical law affecting health security. He recently presented policy recommendations on these security matters to the United Nations High Level Political Forums on behalf of Global NeuroCare®, a non-government organization which holds Special Consultative Status with the United Nations ECOSOC.