GLOBAL NEUROLOGY REPORT: WORLD ASSOCIATION FOR MEDICAL LAW CONFERENCE

World Association for Medical Law (WAML) Congress

World Association for Medical Law (WAML) Congress

The 50th Anniversary Meeting and 23rd World Association for Medical Law (WAML) Congress was held on 9-14 July 2017 in Baku, Azerbaijan.  Leading international experts from around the globe discussed topics related to GlobalHealth, Medical Law and Bioethics.

Drs. James C. Johnston, Mehila Zebenigus and Guta Zenebe presented recommendations for improving relations between developed and developing countries through guidelines that focus on ethically advancing collaborative partnerships to improve health care. This topic followed Dr. Johnston’s lecture last year at the WAML meeting in Los Angeles, USA discussing the medical, ethical and legal problems that arise when Western countries engage in short term medical missions to resource limited nations, resulting in medical paternalism, doctor tourism and actual harm to the very patients that are most desperate for help.  Specific examples of these problems were presented at both meetings, along with clear guidelines on how to avoid the harmful effects of these self-serving missions.

Drs. James C. Johnston and Mehila Zebenigus also discussed concerns related to neuroimaging for the patient presenting with headache. They recommended deleting the currently used guidelines because those guidelines are outdated, and have been a contributing factor in the continuing misdiagnosis of headache disorders.  Dr. Zebenigus discussed the management of the patient with headache in Ethiopia.

Drs. Thomas P. Sartwelle, James C. Johnston, Berna Arda and Mehila Zebenigus highlighted the concerns related to using electronic fetal monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, how that procedure causes more harm than good, and wastes scarce resources that would be better used helping children with cerebral palsy.

In terms of disclosure, Drs. Zebenigus and Johnston are Directors of the non-profit organization Global NeuroCare® which focuses on advancing neurological services in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly Ethiopia, and is actively involved in all of these areas.

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Global Neurology Report: Medical Training in Ethiopia

Addis Ababa University

Africa suffers one-quarter of the global burden of disease, yet has only 3% of the world’s healthcare workers. It consumes less than 1% of the world’s healthcare expenditure. And the continent’s population of one billion people is set to double in the next generation.

The situation is even more disconcerting in the least developed nations such as Ethiopia, which is perhaps the most medically underserved country in the world. A recent World Bank Study reported there were just over 2,000 doctors for the country of 100 million people. This is a dismal situation that warrants increased international support.

There is some recent improvement with an increasing number of medical schools – in 2006 there were four medical schools, and now there are over 30 training centers that will begin graduating 2,000 physicians annually. Additionally, Ethiopia trained 38,000 healthcare extension workers to provide basic health education and services in the rural areas where 85% of the population resides.

However, there remain very serious impediments to advancing healthcare in Ethiopia and the other least developed countries – poor infrastructure, inadequate transportation, lack of equipment and medications, limited geographical distribution of services, and a continuing dearth of specialists.

External support is critical to further advance healthcare and specialist services in these regions, but it must be the right type of help. Unfortunately, many United States academic medical centers have focused on self-serving short term medical missions which can and do cause harm to the very regions that so desperately need help. These types of missions are lucrative and beneficial to the sending institution, but do not provide any substantive benefit to the developing country.

Neurologist Dr. James C. Johnston discussed these concerns at the United Nations High Level Political Forums in 2016 and 2017, and at the World Association for Medical Law Congress Meetings in Los Angeles (2016) and Baku, Azerbaijan (2017). He recommended focusing on a sustainable, comprehensive, ethically congruent approach to partnerships with a focus on advancing patient care, physician training and medical research to benefit the South.

Global NeuroCare is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Dr. Johnston to advance neurological services in developing nations, particularly Ethiopia, and strictly adheres to these principles of sustainable partnerships dedicated to capacity building. Dr. Johnston is an Honorary Professor of Neurology at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia, where the Department of Neurology has graduated 32 board-certified neurologists over the past decade, with 21 more physicians in the expanding three year training program. These neurologists have improved the lives of countless thousands of Ethiopians, and are now training physicians from other African countries.

Continued support of neurological training is crucial, especially since the World Health Organization reported that neurological diseases are one of the greatest threats to global public health. Please go to www.GlobalNeuroCare.org to contribute your support which will have an immediate impact on the lives of many of the world’s most vulnerable people. This registered tax-exempt non-profit organization does not use any of the funds for administrative expenses or salaries – every penny goes to the people in need.

Global Neurology Report: The WHO ‘Neurology Atlas’ Second Edition

Emergency Room in Ethiopia

The World Health Organization (WHO) published the first comprehensive report (Neurology Atlas) on the
status of neurological care and services throughout the world over a decade ago. This compilation provided a
unique and invaluable source of data on the rapidly increasing burden of neurological disorders, and the available neurological services in 109 countries. It highlighted the large disparities between neurological care in the developed and developing nations, and provided critical information for medical specialists, healthcare planners, policy makers and national training programs. This Atlas provided the first detailed picture of the global situation for neurology, and the updated second edition was released in September 2017. It may be accessed here (http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/258947/1/9789241565509-eng.pdf).

This updated Atlas reviewed 132 countries comprising 94% of the world’s population and the data will continue to be helpful to policy makers, although the findings were not surprising and may be summarized as follows:

(1) Neurological disorders are a significant cause of the global disease burden, which was thoroughly addressed in the Global Burden of Disease studies.

(2) Neurological disorders are disproportionately high in developing regions, which are also plagued by resource limitations and severe shortages of healthcare workers.

(3) Neurological conditions are expected to grow exponentially in the future.

The Atlas report focused on several key areas including legislation for neurological disorders, financing of neurological services, social welfare support, workforce data, available neurological services and informational gathering systems. As expected, sub-Saharan Africa fared the worst, with the lowest proportion of healthcare workers, the most limited services and poorest geographical distribution of those services. There were 0.04 neurologists per 100,000 people in the WHO African region, compared to 4.75 per 100,000 people in high income countries.

In Ethiopia, for example, where Dr. James C. Johnston serves as an Honorary Professor of Neurology with the Addis Ababa University neurology residency training program, there is one neurologist for every 3-4,000,000 people, and most of those neurologists are in the capital city Addis Ababa. This ratio, although exceedingly poor compared to the WHO recommendation of at least one neurologist for every 25,000 – 100,000 people, represents a significant improvement since before inception of the program in 2006 when there was one full time neurologist for the one hundred million people in the country.

Dr. Johnston established the non-profit organization Global NeuroCare (www.GlobalNeuroCare.org) to advance neurological services in developing regions. Global NeuroCare holds Special Consultative Status with the United Nations ECOSOC and fully supports the self-sufficient, sustainable Ethiopian neurology residency program. This program has made a significant and measurable difference in the Horn of Africa, graduating 32 board certified neurologists with 21 more physicians in the three year training, improving the lives of tens of thousands of people.

On behalf of Global NeuroCare, Dr. Johnston discussed the healthcare concerns affecting developing nations at the 2016 and 2017 United Nations High Level Political Forums, the 2017 United Nations Commission for Social Development, and at the World Association for Medical Law conferences in Los Angeles (2016) and Baku (2017). One of the main concerns impeding development stems from academic medical centers with global health programs that engage in short term medical missions which are tantamount to doctor tourism, fail to provide any substantive benefit to the developing nations, and cause more harm than good. He presented guidelines to improve sustainable, ethically congruent, collaborative partnerships focused on capacity building to advance neurological services in sub-Saharan Africa, using Global NeuroCare’s focus on Ethiopia as a model plan.

World Association for Medical Law

 

World Association for Medical Law pic

World Association for Medical Law
Image: wafml.memberlodge.org

Consultant Neurologist Dr. James C. Johnston is a Barrister of the High Court of New Zealand, a Fellow of both the Australasian and American Colleges of Legal Medicine, and an active member of many other professional organizations including the World Association for Medical Law (WAML).

Organized in Ghent, Belgium, in 1967, the purpose of the World Association for Medical Law is to encourage the study and discussion of health law, legal medicine and ethics, for the benefit of society and advancement of human rights. The aim is to promote the study of jurisprudence, legislation and ethics of developments in medicine, health care and related sciences; to address any matters that involve issues of medical and health law; and to encourage research and development in medical law.

The official publication of the WAML is the journal ‘Medicine and Law,’ which has been published for almost 40 years with authors from over 100 countries. The Kennedy Institute of Ethics labeled this journal as a “priority journal.”

The 50th Anniversary Meeting and 23rd WAML Congress was held on 9-14 July 2017 in Baku, Azerbaijan with major sub-themes including medical law and bioethics. Drs. Mehila Zebenigus, Guta Zenebe and James C. Johnston presented a discussion on improving relations between developed and developing countries through guidelines that focus on advancing collaborative partnerships to improve health care. This topic followed their lecture last year at the Los Angeles, USA meeting discussing the medical, ethical and legal problems that arise when Western countries engage in short term medical missions to resource limited nations.

Drs. Mehila Zebenigus and James C. Johnston also discussed concerns related to neuroimaging for the patient presenting with headache. They recommended deleting the currently used guidelines because those guidelines are outdated, and have been a contributing factor in the misdiagnosis of headache disorders.

Drs. Thomas P. Sartwelle, James C. Johnston, Berna Arda and Mehila Zebenigus presented a poster highlighting the concerns related to using electronic fetal monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, how that procedure causes more harm than good, and wastes scarce resources that would be better used helping children with cerebral palsy.

Legal and Forensic Medicine

Legal and Forensic Medicine pic

Legal and Forensic Medicine
Image: journals.elsevier.com

Dr. James C Johnston is a board certified neurologist and barrister with three decades of experience. In addition to his consulting practice and charitable work through Global NeuroCare, he is a prolific author who has published peer-reviewed articles for a number of medical and law journals. Dr. James C Johnston has also contributed to over a dozen books including a chapter for the seminal authoritative text in legal medicine entitled Legal and Forensic Medicine, edited by Roy Beran and published by Springer Publishing (ISBN 978-3-642-32339-3).

A comprehensive multi-volume reference book, Legal and Forensic Medicine examines various aspects of legal medicine and ethics that define the fields of the 21st century. Topics addressed in this publication cover the full breadth and depth of legal and forensic medicine around the world, with practical applications in various international and intercultural frameworks. The text analyzes what the fields of legal and forensic medicine share and how they differ in terms of necessary qualifications and professional applications.

Contributing authors to Legal and Forensic Medicine hail from a number of countries and cultural backgrounds. There is a growing interest in the development of health law and legal medicine institutes around the world, and Legal and Forensic Medicine comes in on the ground floor of this burgeoning discipline to provide the foundation textbook for many courses, both undergraduate and postgraduate. It defines the place of legal medicine as a specialized discipline.​